The discourse about the sovereign and sovereignty started from French jurist Jean Bodin in the sixteenth century. Still, the interpretation that Bodin brought in appeared not to be ideal (Schmitt, 1992, p. 17). The problem with the word or concept ’sovereign’ is in its multiple interpretations. Though neither Thomas Hobbes nor Jean Bodin or Carl Schmitt precisely define who is the sovereign (a person, assembly, people’s representatives), they make plausible arguments. Hobbes in “Leviathan” claims that the Leviathan, the sovereign, bases its authority on the will or the consent of those governed, has full control over everything to ensure civil…


Nationalism is complex. The core of it is about liking, having sympathies, caring, being loyal to, and giving preference to your fellow compatriots. It creates a strong feeling of community together with strangers you have never met and, in 99.9% of cases, will probably never meet. It is not about hating foreigners. The big nationalist project aims to make you care about millions of your compatriots, and in the case of India and China, it even reaches a billion. Nationalism creates a feeling of a shared fate, and it is the only reason why democratic elections matter. This is the…


Harvard Philosophy Professor Michael Sandel and Hebrew University History Professor Yuval Noah Harari discussed the market economy, tyranny of meritocracy, populist uprising, democracy, nationalism, and nation-states. This article touches upon the premise of British former PM Margaret Thatcher’s and former US President Ronald Reagan’s market faith, its causes, and consequences.

The reason behind populist backlash is the growing inequality. During the last four decades, stress was put on the market economy, basing this on Reagan-Thatcher notice that “market mechanisms are the primary instruments for achieving the public good” (Sandel, 2020, p. 62). All citizens disregarding their race, class, religion, ethnicity…


Modern depiction of Mihr with Garni temple in background

Long before Armenians would accept Christianity, they were Hellenist. Every phenomenon had its God. Mihr, for example, was the God of Sun and Light. Mihr, with his character, was more like Greek Apollo. He was the son of Aramazd, the father of all Gods. Armazad’s character was like Greek Zeus. Mihr’s main temple was in Derjan province’s Bagaharij village. Garni temple, preserved to this day and located in modern Armenia’s territory, was devoted to Mihr.

Every 8th day of the old Armenian calendar was dedicated to Mihr, and the 8th month (February following the current Gregorian calendar) was fully dedicated…


Image from Armenia’s Human Rights Defender’s Facebook page

An ugly question, right? This is an excerpt from a conversation in marshrutka (small in size public transport in Armenia). The driver, an old but somewhat kind and very energetic person, said that to one of the passengers of his age. There was a small conversation between these two, mainly about the driver’s bio, but then it suddenly erupted into a conflict about Karabagh. It was back in 2019.

He would continuously claim that he used his car for the military and told precisely how useful he was during the war. Finishing, he would ask by nature a rhetorical question…


“You will die. You won’t survive.” These are the words thundering in Armenian heads when remembering the 1915 Armenian Genocide. Every effort was put to exclude the existence of Armenian statehood, Armenian culture, or a single Armenian. These efforts proved to be useless. A nation as old as this world not only survived but recovered its statehood in 1918 and preserved it to this day. …


William Saroyan is one of the Armenian-American authors whose literary legacy became a big part of world literature. Wait, another century, and Saroyan will become a true classic. Being the contemporary of Ernest Hemingway and Erich Maria Remarque, Saroyan managed to stand out with his unique voice. He believed in humanity, relative beauty, and the power of the truth.

“The only thing that can endure is relative beauty and truth” (Սարոյան, 1991, էջ 395).

Honesty and self-reflection are the primary reasons why Saroyan succeeded. His every character was either himself, someone who he truly knew, or the stories he heard…


Revolutions in Europe and low quality of life in Russia started revolutionary moods in Russian Empire. However, initially the need for change wasn’t as radical as it became on the verge of 1917. The wish of the masses wasn’t to overthrow the Czar, kill the royal family and ruin all the systems to create a communist society. They demanded basic rights and freedoms. The public discourse was all about constitutional monarchy. The Russian civil society was fascinated by the French Revolution’s achievements.

The Beginning of the End

Mikhail Zygar starts the story 1917 Russian Revolution from the 1880s and Alexander…


Starting the 1688 Glorious Revolution, the monarchy is declining, and the number of democratic countries is rising. Along with the decline of monarchy, decolonization happened. Now, new ‘empires’ have zones of influence, not colonies. However, the transformation from monarchy to democracy is very challenging because it is on the ruins of monarchy that humanity is struggling to build a democracy.

One of the challenges of the transformation from monarchy to democracy is that because of the massive use of populism, the power granted by the people to the elected leader sometimes equals the power granted to the monarch by God…


William Saroyan is an Armenian-American classic, Pulitzer prize winner for the “The Time of Your Life” play, receiver of Oscar 1944 for the best writing for the “Human Comedy.” He was the fourth child of Saroyan family and the only one who was born in America. Saroyan’s family moved from Armenian Bitlis to America, probably because of instabilities both in Easter and Western Armenia. Saroyan’s father died when he was very young, which had a huge effect on him. Saroyan later paid many visits to Soviet Armenia, met with Armenian political leaders and writers. He even visited Moscow.

Oscar and…

Margarita Dadyan

Concentrating on Armenia, I share my though about books, movies, literature, history, and culture. My research touches political issues as well.

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store